Letters of Intent for 2015

LoI 2015-165
Focus Meeting: Dynamical problems in Extrasolar planets science

Date:

5 August 2015 to 7 August 2015

Location:

Hawai'i Convention Center 1801 Kalakaua Avenue Honolulu, HI 96814, United States

Contact:

Alessandro Morbidelli (morby@oca.eu)

Coordinating division:

Division A Fundamental Astronomy

Co-Chairs of SOC:

A. Morbidelli (OCA - President Commission 7)
A. Lecavallier des Etaints (IAP - President Commission 53)
C. Beuge' (Univ. Cordoba - VicePresident Commission 7)
N. Haghighipour (IFA - VicePresident Division F)
J. Laskar (IMCCE- VicePresident Division A)

Chair of LOC:

N. Haghighipour (IFA)

 

Topics

Tidal effects, mean motion resonances, secular evolution, spin-orbit resonances, transit-time variations, origin of eccentricity and inclination excitation, migration theories, dynamical effects of stellar companions

 

Rationale

The number of known extrasolar planets has increased considerably over the last years. Today, we have cataloged more than 800 confirmed planets (plus over 3000 planet candidates of the Kepler mission), a good fraction of which are in more than 130 multi-planet systems. The discovery of these systems has raised many interesting question on their formation and dynamical evolution.

Planets in mean motion resonances prompt the investigation of resonant dynamics in the framework of the general (i.e. non-restricted) three-body problem. The general problem is much more complicated than the restricted one, so that we have yet to achieve a global description of resonant dynamics. While previous observations have identified several multi-planet systems in mean-motion resonances, recent observations point to systems of small planets which seem to lie close to resonances, but outside the libration domains. It is not yet clear the reason for these near-resonance configurations: tidal evolution could have played a role in extracting planets from resonance, and so might turbulence in the original proto-planetary disk. The origin of "hot" planets (planets with orbital periods of a few days) is still a matter of debate: did these planets reach their orbit by migrating through the proto-planetary disk, or they arrived at their current orbital configurations via scattering and tidal damping? The origin of the surprisingly large eccentricities and/or inclinations (relative to the stellar equator) of many extrasolar planets remains elusive: planet instabilities, planet-disk interactions, external perturbations from eccentric or inclined stars remain viable options. This (non-exhaustive) list of open problems highlights the importance of dynamical studies for understanding the nature of the systems that are observed as well as establishing clues on their origin.

Moreover, it is important to stress that dynamical models can also complement observations and characterization of extrasolar planets. Dynamical maps have been very useful to constrain the orbits of multi-planet systems, where the uncertainties in the orbital parameters due to the observational errors are often much wider than that permitting the long-term stability of the system. A special mention has to be given to Transit Time Variations (TTV) analyses. TTVs are now routinely detected in packed systems of multiple planets. They are used to confirm planet candidates and allow for the determination of the masses of the planets. The power and success of this technique can be emphasized by a recently discovery and orbital determination of a non-transiting planet through the analysis of the TTV signal of a transiting companion. The TTV method brings Celestial Mechanics back to the glorious time when Le Verrier predicted the existence and the position of Neptune from the analysis of the anomalies of the motion of Uranus. Last but not least, dynamical studies are essential to determine whether a given planet can remain stably in the habitable zone, whether it should be tidally locked in a spin-orbit resonance etc.

All these examples show that the synergy between dynamicists and observers is key to the advancement of extrasolar planet science. The studies of the solar system during the past several decades has proven that our understanding of our own planetary system has greatly benefited from the combination of dynamical modeling and physical observations. The time has now come to extend this synergy to a larger number of planetary systems.We believe that the organization of a focused meeting on dynamical problems in extrasolar planets during the 2015 GA will be the best way to facilitate such synergy by bringing together scientists from different communities of planetary science.

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